Monday, February 17, 2020

How did the physicians and the literate lay people in the 18th century Essay

How did the physicians and the literate lay people in the 18th century explain disease and what did they think were the roles of doctor, the individual, and the state in responding to and preventing it - Essay Example The state had not been involved previously in the maintenance of health and health related issues but many writings and works led to the initiation of the intervention of the government in these issues. This century could not be considered as an era of great medical development because it did not reach very close to the actual concept and meaning of medical practice. But the advances and progression in this regard was great enough as compared to the previous centuries. The concept of disease was previously considered to be the problems encountered by a patient. It was the presentation of the symptoms and signs by the patient which laid the basis for the explanation of the disease. This practice was very much common till the start of the eighteenth century. This is clearly presented by an example which was put forward by Alexander Morgan who was a surgeon in Bristol. He put forward a case which he encountered with a patient in 1744 when the patient presented him with his problems. This was the period when the doctor was not the person solely governing the pathology with which the patient was suffering and the prescribed medications. It was rather the doctor and the patient who discussed the problems together and reached to a conclusion regarding the treatment to be prescribed to the patient. It is said that during this time it was actually the patient who ruled the right to reach to a conclusion regarding his problem and medicine and practice basic ally lay in the hands of the sufferer. During this time patients explained the reasons for their diseases. They could actually stand against the treatment given to them by the doctor. The reasons explained for illnesses ranged from sudden changes in temperature to the curse of god. Not only were there vague reasons for diseases but treatments were also of a similar range. By the middle of the eighteenth century certain changes to these concepts were noticed. Hospitals were created by this time. And the other

Monday, February 3, 2020

Psychedelia and Vietnam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Psychedelia and Vietnam - Essay Example In this way one considers that the narrator in the song speaks about having to avoid mortar shells. In great part the specific musical components contribute to this song’s message. In this way the guitar is low-key and thoroughly allows the vocals to shine through. Another prominent recognition is that Paxton’s voice is subdued, yet contains a significant degree of ethos, leading the listener to empathize with his message. Another prominent song with a war message is Johnny Wright’s ‘Hello Vietnam’. This song is less explicit in its criticism of the Vietnam War. While the song alludes to the arbitrary nature of the war, it is more concerned with articulating a story about a lost love going abroad to fight in the war. This seems to be the song’s most effective part. To an extent the song can even be interpreted as embracing the war. In this way the song speaks of American’s mission abroad and the importance of stopping communism before it becomes a larger problem. Specifically, the song implements a lyrical metaphor in comparing communism to a fire that must be put out or risk a larger problem. In terms of the specific musical components, to an extent one can argue that they interfere with the song’s message. The song adopts a lackadaisical country western musical approach that seems more concerned with the love story than conveying any sort of meaningful politi cal message. Finally, Sgt. Barry Sadler’s ‘Ballad of the Green Berets’ presents another perspective on war. While the first two songs made specific comments on the Vietnam War, this song instead constitutes a firm embracement of American military values. In this way, as the title suggests, the song functions as a ballad for the Green Berets. To a large extent the Green Berets are presented as heroic and brave individuals. While the song lacks a political message, this may actually be its strongest part;

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Relationship Between Numeracy and Music Curriculum

Relationship Between Numeracy and Music Curriculum 1.1 Introduction Numeracy and music have been linked together as far back to medieval times. This link goes back as far the Quadrivium possibly even further. The quadrivium were a set of subjects or topics (which were grounded on the trivium of grammar, dialect and rhetoric) that were covered daily. The quadrivium involved four subject areas including Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy and Music. Music was studied in connection with arithmetic and in turn became a mathematical discipline (Wang, 2014). The current focus of numeracy can be viewed through the workings of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and their Programme for International student Assessment (PISA) which is carried out every 3 years (OECD, n.d.). Irelands results in 2009 had dropped below the OECD average which led the Irish Government with the task of creating a new strategy to help enhance numeracy skills. The Literacy and numeracy for learning and life (2011) was created to help improve literacy and num eracy standards among children and young people in the education system (Department of Education and Skills, 2011). Currently, Ireland ranks 13th of 35 OECD countries, 9th in the EU and 18th out of all countries that took part in the assessment. This thesis brings forward valuable insights into the area of numeracy with a particular focus on the promotion of numeracy in the music curriculum. The researcher wanted to examine numeracy strategies/ideas that could be promoted and developed in the classroom. The key questions that were considered before this research was undertaken were; 1) What is numeracy and how is it related to Music? 2) Is numeracy important in the music classroom? and 3 how can numeracy strategies be developed in the music classroom? 1.2 Chapter layout The first part has introduced the reader to the research area and why this research topic was undertaken. Chapter 2 will look at the literature used in this research around numeracy and music in Ireland. It will look literature from and Irish context as well as other countries. Chapter 3 will focus on the methodologies employed by the researcher. It will outline the approach the researcher took in order to gather data and what the restrictions were in completing it. Chapter 4 will look at the findings of the research and will evaluate what was made of those findings. It will focus on discussing what happened and if anything changed. Exploring quantitative analysis in calculating results of the research topic. Chapter 5 will be a discussion around what was happened. It will explore research as to what happened and why it happened. It will look at whether or not the test were reliable and have they are valid. Chapter 6 will conclude any arguments that the researcher has brought up. It will conclude the research by highlighting the possibility of any future research around the area. Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 Introduction The purpose of this research topic is to explore numeracy in music education and consider the implementation of a numeracy strategy that can improve numeracy abilities in the post-primary curriculum. The goal is to look at whether or not numeracy is being developed through these strategies or naturally in the students learning. The aim of this section is to explore the most current literature around numeracy strategies and the implementation of said strategies into the post-primary curriculum. Looking at research from an Irish context is key but this section will also look at other countries and the numeracy strategies that they have implemented. This section begins by looking at the various definitions of numeracy that are used around in different education systems. It will then focus on the literature around music and numeracy and how the two are linked. 2.2 Numeracy What is numeracy? There are many definitions as to what numeracy is and what it relates to. O Donoghue (2002, p.48) notes aspects of numeracy as Basic computational arithmetic, essential mathematics, social mathematics, survival skills for everyday life, quantitative literacy, mathematical literacy and an aspect of mathematical power. The Programme for International student Assessment (PISA) (2009,p 14) define numeracy as An individuals capacity to identify and understand the role that mathematics plays in the world, to make well-founded judgements and to use and engage with mathematics in ways that meet the needs of that individuals life as a constructive, concerned and reflective citizen. The Department of Education and Skills introduced The Literacy and Numeracy Strategy for Learning and Life (2011) and define numeracy as the ability to use mathematics to solve problems and meet the demands of day-to-day living    These definitions are accurate in nature and for the purpose of this paper, the researcher will focus on the holistic approach of using mathematics to solve problems and meet the demands of day to day living. This is the definition the researcher deems accurate for the aim of this research question. There are key skills that are outlined by the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) (2015) that aim to promote student wellbeing. The approach mentioned previously encompasses all of the key skills associated with the junior cycle. It has a close link with the skills of being numerate, staying well, managing information and thinking and communicating. By stating this, the researcher is not excluding the possibility that numeracy does not cross between all of the key skills. On a deeper level, numeracy incorporates three different types of knowledge. Beginning with Mathematical Knowledge (Foundation of numeracy) leading to Contextual Knowledge (The ability to apply the foundation skills) and finally to Strategic Knowledge (the flexibility to use the previous knowledge to solve strategic problems. 2.3 PISA Assessment PISA or The Programme for International Student Assessment is an assessment conducted every 3 years with students from 65 different countries at the age of 15. The assessments focus on students proficiency in the areas of Reading, Science and Mathematical Literacy. It takes a different focus every year with the process repeating itself every 3 years. In 2003 and 2012, Mathematical literacy was the primary focus of assessment. In the figure below, it is clear to see how well Ireland has done over the years. Cosgrove et al. (2013) however found that although it is positive that Irelands performance has not decreased between 2003 and 2012, it must be noted that there has been a decline by other OECD countries which could have resulted to Irelands placement in 2009. In recent years, the Irish Government has many strategies and frameworks to help deal with the under-performance of students. The National Strategy to improve Literacy and Numeracy among Children and Young People 2011-2020 (2011) emphasises that all students should leave school numerate and focuses on the fact that literacy and numeracy are among the most important life skills that our schools teach. No child should leave school without having mastered these skills to the best of their abilities. The main research areas of this document focus on Enabling parents and communities to support childrens literacy and numeracy development, Improving teachers and ECCE practitioners professional practice, Building the capacity of school leadership, Improving the curriculum and learning experience, Helping students with additional learning needs to achieve their potential and Improving assessment and evaluation to support better learning in literacy and numeracy (Department of Education and Sk ills, 2011, p. 3). The strategy outlines clear objectives regarding what needs to be accomplished and outlines a timeline for plans to be made in order for these objectives to succeed. However the can be some issues with this strategy. It recommends that teachers partake in CPD for 20 hours over a 5 year period and resources have been aimed at DEIS schools which can be seen with the Junior Cert School Programme (JCSP). 2.4 International Advances Looking at this from an international view, the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO, 2012) understand that even when a student finishes their education, they still lack the required knowledge and skills that are associated with mathematics. Conway and Sloane (2005, p.15) determine two main concerns in international trends in mathematics education, poor levels of understanding and achievement gaps and the need for 21st century skills. These are respectively called the push and pull factors. Zawojewski and McCarthy (2007) have commented on the ramifications of introducing a strategy that would see students actively engage with rich everyday applications of their mathematics. Other Relevant literature This research paper will aim to focus on the importance of numeracy in the classroom and how a music teacher can improve the numeracy ability of the students in class. As this research focuses on different strategies, the researcher focused on numeracy strategies that have been created and implemented in different countries. This in itself provided the researcher with a broad sense of where they wanted to go and how they were to go about it. One of the first documents that was researched was the Literacy and Numeracy for Learning and Life (2011) which was document that was published by the Department of Education and Skills in direct response to the PISA results. This document highlights a lot of really fair points regarding the development of literacy and numeracy in the education of students, but it is far more biased towards the literacy than the numeracy. Surprisingly enough, every time the word numeracy was searched just before it was the term literacy. Yes they are a combining factor but they represent two very different themes in the world of developing the educational needs and skills of each student. Getting the students to realise the connections between music and numeracy will help them to engage with what they are learning. In conjunction with the literacy and numeracy strategy, this research paper will draw from different methodologies and perspectives of music teachers and education specialists. Diverse Methodologies in the Study of Music Teaching and Learning (2008)covers a broad range of research subjects that researcher drew ideas from. A large number of the chapters present in this book are based on practiced based research in the classroom. As the research is focused on students in first year one article in which the researcher drew valuable insights from was First-Year Teachers and Methods Classes: Is there a connection? By Margaret Schmidt. This study examined the ways that three first year string teachers applied a song-teaching method emphasized in their junior-year. (Schmidt, 2008, p. 67) Schmidt focuses on the students developments but focuses on the teachers and how they need to be continually developing as teachers. Growing from these ideas Brown explored Actualising Potential in the Classroom: Moving from Practicing to be Numerate Towards Engaging in the Literature Practice of Mathematics and stated all students should have access to mathematical knowledge (Brown, 2011). He writes about transforming numeracy into literacy through engaging in mathematical practice. One way that this could be addressed is through practical performance. Students could be introduced to a numerical concept and that a musical performance activity could be introduced to structure the concept and could also help to refocus or clear up any misconceptions that the learners may have. Brown writes about mathematical literacy in a social context and getting the students to associate mathematical language with everyday concepts. This refers back to the literacy and numeracy strategy where the aim is to improve students numeracy abilities through linking it to outside experiences. Mathematics and Music by David Wright explores all the variations of number sequences, logarithms, music intervals, scales, octave identification, timbre and even tuning all of which can be replicated in the classroom. This book will form a basis in this research on how to promote numeracy in the classroom and how numeracy can be developed. According to Wright Mathematics attempts to understand conceptual and logical truthMusic evokes mood and emotion by the audio medium of tones and rhythmsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Therefore it is not surprising that the symbiosis of the two disciplines is an age old story. (Wright, 2009, p. v) Numeracy is not mentioned in the curriculum which is a sign that the curriculum itself needs to be updated. David Elliott writes that there are numerous concepts of what curriculum is and what it means and even states that is has monopolized the thinking if scholars and teachers. (Elliott Silverman, 2015, p. 394) He mentions Ralph Tyler who proposes that curriculum makers should follow a four step process. (ANDREW WHAT ARE THE FOUR STEPS) This process could help with the integration of numeracy into the curriculum just like literacy is already included. This is why Re-setting Music Educations Default Settings would come into effect. Written by Thomas Regelski in 2013 explores how it needs to be rethought and complemented and enhanced for the learner in that it does not hinder their learning in any way. 2.4 Overview This literature review has shown that there has been research and documentation around the area of numeracy. Numeracy is an area that has many links to cross-curricular subjects and developing numeracy skills among all young people is fundamental to the life chances of each individual and essential to the quality and equity of Irish society (Department of Education and Skills, 2011). This research paper focuses on clarifying what numeracy is and its importance. It will also aim to promote numeracy in a music class that will develop and promote learning in a positive and constructive way. There are assessments available to test numeracy but none specific to music and numeracy since this research has been conducted. So this research paper will be focusing on looking at how to develop numeracy that is related to music and that it is linked to both the curriculum and the learning of each student. It can also be used as an aid for teachers to see how they themselves can incorporate numera cy into their classroom and tailor it for each students ability. One aspect that will have to be looked into in further detail is that of questioning and how are the students numeracy skills being tested. Chapter 3: Methodology 3.1 Introduction In the previous chapter, the researcher focused on literature and research addressing the areas of numeracy and music. The aim of this chapter is to explain how this study was designed and the specific reasons towards choosing the quantitative method. This thesis is based on action research. This chapter will highlight the ethical considerations of the research and. This chapter will firstly begin by outlining the research paradigm explain how data was collected. 3.2 Research aims and objectives The aim of this strategy is to see if numeracy can be developed in a music classroom with the aid of a guide. This strategy is a development from the results that Ireland has received in the PISA scores over the previous years. As mentioned in the introduction, there were three questions that helped to create this research and from those questions the research was looking at gathering quantitative data, using a pre and post-test with two different classes. This will allow the researcher to appraise the increase, if any, in the students numerical abilities. 3.3 Action Research Action research cited in Hine (2013) is a process of systematic inquiry that seeks to improve social issues affecting the lives of everyday people however on a more direct note to where it is situated in the classroom, Stringer (2014) describes it as a distinctive approach to inquiry that is directly relevant to classroom instruction and learning and provides the means for teachers to enhance their teaching and improve students learning Both of these representations of action research have helped to prove the researcher with enough information to understand the concept. When following an action research plan there are a few ways that it could be undertaken. For the focus of this research the researcher will outline the method of Kurt Lewin and its importance. Cohen et al. (2011) name Lewin as the originator of the action research process in breaking it down into four different sections; Planning, Acting, Observing and Reflecting. (INSERT DIAGRAM) From this model there have been numerous changes made. Kemmis and McTaggart (2005) action research cycle is similar in that it has a plan, act, observe and reflect, but this reflection is allowing the researcher to change the plan and begin the cycle again. 3.4 Quantitative Research The research methodology employed uses quantitative analysis. Creswell (2002) describes quantitative analysis as strategies of inquiryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦that invoked the postpositivist perspectives. These strategies are in the forms of experiments of surveys. postpositivist perspectives are considered to be that of a scientific method and it refers challenging the traditional notion of the absolute truth of knowledge and that the claims we make cannot be positive when studying the performance and abilities of humans (Creswell, 2002). Punch (2009) mentions quantitative research employing three different ideas; Conceptualizes reality in terms of variables Measures these variables Studies relationship between these variables Using these themes the researcher will follow how to correlate effectively the results gathered. 3.5 Instruments 3.5.1 Pre-post test The researcher employed different instruments to help bring about the findings of the study. To validate the students numeracy skills the researcher had to firstly find out where the students were regards to their learning. The researcher created a specific pre-test to assess their numeracy knowledge. The researcher focused on the concepts of the first year music curriculum and transferred any correlations with numeracy to an assessment form. (appendix) The researcher wanted to keep the focus on numeracy and assess what they students were able to do regarding rhythm. 3.6 Validity and reliability During this research, the researcher gathered quantitative data to get the best way of measuring students results regarding numeracy. The researcher believes that the findings have depth and provide detail as to confirming the research outcomes. Validity is an indication of how sound your research is, with looking at both design and method (BYU Department of Linguistics, 1997) of the research area. When looking at quantitative data one must be careful. Winter (2000) says that it is difficult to get 100% and that a certain degree of error is to be anticipated. Reliability is about the precision and accuracy of the research over a period of time. Having the pre and post-tests very close to each other can alter the reliability. Due to the 6 week period between pre and post-tests, the researcher believes the results to be reliable. It took 3 weeks getting consent forms back from the students which cut down the time between pre and post-test tests.. 3.7 Ethical considerations Hammersley and Traianou (2012, pp.2-3) outline the subsequent themes as the main ethical issues that need to be addressed; Minimising Harm Respecting Autonomy Protecting Privacy Offering Reciprocity Treating People Equitably. As this research is aimed towards the learning and development of students numeracy, the research had to get ethical approval as it would be focusing on those who would be unable to give consent. The researcher received ethical approval from FAHSS Research Ethics Committee from the University of Limerick in June 2016. The researcher proceeded to provide information sheet to the principal (appendix) and co-operating teacher. (appendix) Then the researcher provided the same information to each of the participants and their parents/ guardians. (appendix) Provided on the information sheet were details about how the research would have been conducted. It outlined that they could withdraw from the study at any time and that anonymity would be used. 3.8 School profile and study sample The school where this research was conducted is a large town in Munster. It is a co-educational school and both classes are made up of mixture of males and females. Both first year classes are students between the ages of 12 and 13. In this school, all students do music in first year regardless of prior experience or musical knowledge. Then when its time for them to move onto 2nd year, the students are given the option to do music if they would like. Before implementing the prior test, the research introduced some rhythms to both groups to get the students interacting and to get an understanding of what they were going to learn. Before the intervention, the researcher made sure that both classes were relatively on the same level before giving out the pre-tests. QUESTIONS ASSESSING STUDENTS NUMERACY What is a crotchet added to another crotchet? What is the interval between middle C and Eb? How many notes are there in a 1 octave scale? How many crotchet/ quaver/ minim/ semibreve beats are there in this phrase? How many beats are there in a semibreve? What is a crotchets added to a crotchet added to a quaver? What is the difference between 3 quavers and 2 crotchets? How many crotchet beats are the in 5/4? How many quaver beats are there in 13/8? How many minim beats are there in 3/2? (A musical phrase can be found on the next page) Source: Mozarts Piano Sonata in F, K. 332, first movement. (,_K._332,_first_movement_phrase_group.png) Source: Source: Source:

Friday, January 17, 2020

Faulkner’s Short Stories Essay

‘A Rose for Emily’ and ‘Barn Burning’ is both short stories created by William Faulkner. In both short stories, Faulkner used the Old Southern setting as his character’s orientation of culture and societal norms. Emily from the story of ‘A rose for Emily’ and Abner from the story of ‘Barn Burning’ both guilty of terrible crimes, terror and violence yet Faulkner, with his creativity and unconventional talent in creating literature, manage to generate sympathy for both characters. The continuous used of the Old South as the main setting of his both short stories suggests that the characters’ predicaments have to do with the place’s history. Though Emily and Abner are both portrayed as cruel and violent, Faulkner employed sympathy through subtly demonstrating that they are just victims of society, history and culture. Emily and Abner’s revelation of their dark side human nature was been provoked by their past experiences in the hands of cruel society. Emily’s character was created with authentic insights about a woman who can not accept change. Emily was a spinster who was seen as a lonely and impoverished woman who was so attached to the past, a woman that shuts herself off from the rest of the world simply because she cannot accept change. The story begins with Emily’s death at the age of 74 and flashes back to the near distant past of Emily’s life. She was a character who was so attached in the tradition of the past that she continually personifies until her death. Faulkner used the pronoun ‘we’ which tells that the narrator is some of the townspeople sympathizing Emily. It is a well structured and detailed events of Emily’s life the will give a deeper understanding why there is pride and isolation in her character. Emily’s structured character brought her to an unlucky fate. The story tells how Emily copes and accepted the nature of time, change and chance. Emily’s father who represents the ruling class of the South contributed most in the construction of her pride and arrogance. Emily was raised in an upper class home which made them prominent in the community. She perceived herself as rich and powerful which motivated her poise and bearing. Their position in the community had unconsciously taught her to hold herself high from the surrounding people even after her father’s death. As time passes by, perspective about class and status change. People accepted the changes of time and ideas. But Emily who was a complex and well developed character chose not to adapt. This made her a grotesque or unique personality in the setting that encouraged the townspeople to analyze her life. Faulkner’s sympathy towards Emily is perceived through the narrator’s tone and how he symbolically represents the rose in relation to Emily’s life. The rose in the story represents affection. It is affection given by the narrator to Emily. Other people may perceive Emily’s pride and violence as something immoral, but the narrator’s point of view towards Emily is different. He clearly sympathize with Emily and understands the reason how Emily constructed such character. The narrator justified her through presenting series of events about her past. She was a victim of bitterness and complete attachment. The community itself during her father’s time constructed her different reality that made her of what she became. I can also suggest that the rose in the story represents Emily’s love for Homer. It represents the soft side of Emily which the outside world can not see. She was perceived differently by the people as a scandalous and proud. But Emily like any other needs love and affection. Her love was violent and harsh though which represents the thorns of the rose. The narrator gave detailed events of Emily’s history which suggests the gossip nature of the southern town where everyone knows everybody else. In the beginning of the story, the author emphasized those women in town had a different perspective in attending Emily’s funeral. Emily was respected by the men of the town but women were driven by curiosity. This suggests the domestic nature of women that time that seems more concern to the detailed events of Emily’s life. Women wanted to appease their long curiosity. Most of the time ladies in town find Emily’s scandalous and unusual. They find Emily a threat to the community. She was a symbol of the past. Other readers may perceive this horrifying when the people in town discovered the secret of Emily after her death. She has kept the body of her lover named Homer Baron locked in a separate bedroom after she killed him years before. But the body was not alone. The Northern man had been locked with an embrace since behind the indented pillow was a strand of iron-gray hair of Emily. The dead man had not died without love and attention. It was a horrifying in a way that Homer’s death was not given a social justice. But it was sad for Emily who wanted to give love and be loved but the circumstances and public opinion will no permit her so. The morality of Miss Emily Grierson was not justified in the end of the story. The consequences of her isolation and pride made the townspeople pity her all the more. However, her solitude made her missed significant chances of her happiness. Though destiny and fate is a choice but we must reconsider the factors that influenced Emily’s choices. The narrator was so clever on how he presented Emily not as an antagonist but a woman that has to be sympathized which made me see her as a victim. Abner on the other hand on the ‘Barn Burning’ story is a barn burner and who have a 10year old son named Sarty who always wish to death that his father will stop his horrifying and unjust activity. Abner finds perverse sense of joy in setting a fire on someone else barn without reconsidering that farmers hold their livestock and harvested crops on barns which provide food and money for the farmers and their families in order to survive. Moreover, Abner also never reconsidered that his activity and crime may affect his son’s sense of morality at his very early age since his activities of barn burning is no secret in the family. Faulkner generates a sense of sympathy to Abner’s character when he narrated Abner’s past involvement during Civil War. Abner grew accustomed to building small fires as a way to hide from troops during civil war. The threat of fire is Abner one and only source of power. Fire â€Å"spoke to some deep mainspring† of Abner’s character â€Å"as the one weapon for the preservation of integrity . . . and hence to be regarded with respect and used with discretion.† Fire is Abner’s unconscious defense mechanism believing that no one will ever harm him anymore. In setting fire, he unconsciously acquired sense of power, protection and confidence that he will never be defeated by anyone who cross his path and anger him. His experience in war continually haunts him. Ab has never held an allegiance to any man or thing.  In war, to kill is for the purpose of self preservation. After the war, he has not changed. When he experience pressure to an employer or to any authority, he takes away the power from them through burning what they own. Someone who is more superior than him is bound to destruction. When one is gone, he moves on and takes another again. Abner is basically a Southern man attached by the role given to him during civil war that a man’s place in the society is derived by their actions during the war. In burning barns, Abner accumulates a sense of pride and of manliness disregarding that the war is over and that his life is now in reality. Through the character of Abner, Faulkner illustrated the destructive psychological effects of war and how it distorts the participants’ sense of morality. Abner’s character manifests war’s ugly truths which are in contrast to the ideas of glory, courage and heroism associated with war. When the war ends, they perceive that everything is over. However for those who experience it, there is a greater battle that not everybody understands. Abner as a participant of civil war destroyed. He became a victim of political conflict. Both Emily and Abner’s actions were motivated by the psychological effects brought to them by war and societal norms and standards.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Effects Of Obesity On American Culture - 1657 Words

There are many trends in American society ranging from popular dance moves to political opinions. Some of them are beneficial and improve the society as a whole, such as the increasing popularity in clean energy. However, there are some on the rise that are not as beneficial, such as American obesity. America is not the only country that faces issues with obesity, but the US has the highest ranking in the world for the total number of people who are overweight. In September of 2014 it was shown, â€Å"every state is above 20 percent (1).† It is a very large issue and commonly debated in American culture. Due to the fact that obesity not only increases chances for health problems, but can also cause decreases in confidence and acceptance into society. There is a lot of public interest to resolve this issue, which many organizations have been founded to try and increase awareness for positive body images, and others are trying to decrease the percentage of obesity in America. 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Many Americans today are unaware of their addiction to fast food and the health risks connected to obesity. Unless there is a cultural and behavioral change among Americans, obesity will continue to spread, and health problems will keep skyrocketing. The food accepted in the American culture is another factor contributing to the nation’sRead MoreObesity : Obesity And Obesity892 Words   |  4 Pagesadults are considered obese in America. In recent years obesity is the health topic of choice these days because obesity in America is a growing epidemic. One out of twenty people in America have extreme obesity. According to a 2009-2010 survey conducted by the National Health and Nutrition examination this data states that about one third of children and adolescents ages six to nine are considered to be overweight or obese. Adolescent obesity has more than tripled in young adults and doubled in childrenRead MoreWeight On Obesity1551 Words   |  7 PagesAll the Weight on Our Shoulders America is in danger; this rising threat is obesity, which is growing as the leading cause of preventable deaths just behind tobacco. Throughout its history, America has seen many different conflicts and threats rise and fall and with each threat. Each generation has risen to the challenge time and time again. Now, it’s the new age generation’s turn to do the same. Obesity is a significant problem and it must be curbed or it will crush us under its weight. As the citizensRead MoreObesity : A Cultural And Behavioral Change Among Americans966 Words   |  4 PagesObesity can be defined as someone who has excess body weight than what is considered healthy. Many individuals are unaware that more than third or 35.7 percent of adults are considered obese in America. Obesity is an important topic to my family because my great grandmother died from type 2 diabetes caused by her obesity. Many Americans today are unaware to their addiction to fast food and the health risks conne cted to obesity. Unless there is a cultural and behavioral change among Americans, obesityRead MoreCulture Is A Major Factor Of Obesity1555 Words   |  7 PagesCulture is a major factor of obesity. Many people generalize overweight and obese people as lazy and gluttonous. These people who generalize, like doctors and health nuts, ignore other factors that could cause a person to be heavy. They overlook the effect of food habits and how they can be passed down from generation to generation, much like a cultural tradition, and how respecting some of these traditions can be just as important as following their cultures values. Culture plays a greater roleRead MoreObesity Is A Chronic Condition Of Excess Stored Body Fat1415 Words   |  6 Pagesa handful of Ebola cases within the borders, few Americans have yet to bat an eye at the disease that has overtaken more than a third of the country. In 1980, roughly thirteen percent of the American population suffered from the malady, but by 2008, more than thirty-four percent of the country were found fighting for their lives against this disease(AMA). What is this frightening bug? It’s not a virus; it is obesity. In the simplest terms, obesity is a chronic condition of excess stored body fatRead MoreThe Effects Of Obesity On Children s Obesity Essay1277 Words   |  6 PagesChild Obesity Having obese children is a problem. The question resumes, why? Are children less active? Are they not eating the right things? Or are they a product of their parents lifestyle? Whatever the answer maybe, we must find it quick. Obesity in children Is becoming an epidemic. And the African American population is leading the way. According to WE Can!, a program of the National Institutes of health 31.7 percent of children between the age of 2-19 years old are overweight or obese. Including

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Health Disparities Among the Poor - 1074 Words

Health Disparities Improving the health of the socially and economically disadvantaged is a major task. Many Americans are living with poor health because of their socioeconomic statuses and it has many negative effects on their long term health. Improving access to health care is not enough to help fix the lower death rates among low income families. Our social status in our economy has large effect on our lives including how we are able to live our lives and in tern it has large measurable effects on our health. San Antonio is no exception, in low income areas the mortality rates by diabetes are stunning and need to be changed in order to help improve the lives of so many people. In my essay I will be proposing a plan to help lower†¦show more content†¦People can be recommended to wear work out attire in order to teach simple yet effective workouts that everyone could enjoy in their own homes, finding a way to make exercise fun and easy for busy families can influence the community to do it. It can be a large scale effort to get private companies to donate their time or money for the cause of healthier communities. Another way of helping the overall health of the people who are socially and economically disadvantaged is to addressed the social determinants of health. Access to clean water, healthy food, safe homes and neighborhoods, increasing job benefits and wages, improving schools are just some of the ways that we can help increase the life expectancy of the poor and increase health. We can go about addressing these areas by having increased awareness through San Antonio and city wide efforts to help lower income families. Helping create cheap health insurance for low income families can help open the doors to better health care for more people instead of just the higher income families. Having more local parks and easier access to a running track can help push start fitness for adults and children. I believe that making social programs that hel p give poor families air filters, water filters, non-lead based paint, new mattresses, insulation and other basic things that people need toShow MoreRelatedHealth Disparities And Health Care895 Words   |  4 Pagesethnic health needs, including culture norms, religious mandates, and health disparities. The health disparities refers to specific differences in disease incidence, health outcomes, quality of health care and access to health care services that exist across racial and ethnic groups (Mandal, 2014). Disparities may result from inadequate access to care, poor quality of care, cultural issues and social determinants. Health Policy Issues Disparity Despite improvements, differences persist in health careRead MoreHealth Disparities Among African Americans893 Words   |  4 PagesAfrican-American men lack appropriate necessities when it comes to health care. Continuous efforts to bridge the gap among African American men with prostate cancer still remains high in the United States. Evidence shows how disproportionate this ethnic population leads in both incidence and mortality rate concerning social determinants of health, as well as health disparities. Major key factors that contribute to this health disparity among African Americans men are low socioeconomic status (SES) andRead MoreHigh Rates Among Various Ethnic Backgrounds1060 Words   |  5 Pages Healthcare disparities exist at higher rates among various ethnic backgrounds as well as individuals with disabilities. Although receiving good healthcare should be a privilege, statistics have shown that social determinants such as poor education, low income, limited access to quality care, as well as environmental factors have contributed to healthcare disparities. If society could improve barriers like health education, communication, and healthcare cost, quality healthcare could be successfullyRead MoreDiscrimination And The Health Care977 Words   |  4 Pagesin health care. A large percent of minorities are the majority of workers of America, in which requires the most of the health care distribution. But are they receiving the proper access to health care and prescription access based on their ethnicity/race? Discrimination and racism continue to be a part of the unbalancing inequality in society and have adversely affected minority populations, and the health care system in general. Analyzing some of the racial disparities in health care among AmericansRead MoreRacial Discrimination And The Health Of African Americans911 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscrimination is the ground root of disparities letting African Americans to low socioeconomic status a nd poor health outcomes. Why disproportionality in health is so high among African Americans in the United States? Disparities limit the continuity of improvement in overall quality of care and population health and result in poor health outcomes as well as unnecessary costs. Despite an upsurge focus on reducing disparities and increasing a set of advantages to address disparities in the federal, state, communityRead MoreThe Community Needs For Santa Rosa1183 Words   |  5 PagesCHNA report, among the nine cities in Sonoma County, Santa Rosa is the largest and is one of the two cities expected to grow the fastest. There are many health needs that must be focused on in order to promote better health to all of those residing in Santa Rosa. The main health needs for Santa Rosa include: healthy eating and physical fitness, gaps in access to primary care, access to substance use disorder services, barriers to healthy aging, access to mental health services, disparities in educationalRe ad MoreHealth Disparities Of Indigenous Populations885 Words   |  4 PagesHealth Disparities in Indigenous Populations Around the globe in countries from Australia and New Zealand to South American and North America there is a disparity in the quality of healthcare and life that indigenous people receive compared to their non-indigenous counterparts (Ring Brown, 2003). Life expectancy for Aboriginals, the indigenous people of Australia is 19-21 years less than non-indigenous life expectancy; 5-7 years for the Maori population in New Zealand; and 5-7 years less forRead MoreThe On The Last Straw Game961 Words   |  4 Pagesdeterminants of health disparities. Disparities exist when differences in health outcomes or health determinants are observed between populations. In the United States health disparities are well known problems among ethnic groups such as African Americans, Asia Americans, Native American and Latinos. Other disparities that contribute to unequal health outcomes include race, gender, sexual and orientation. The aim of this game was to make us aware of the health disparities among the population andRead MoreEssay on Barriers and Disparities in Health Care893 Words   |  4 PagesBarriers and Disparities in Health Care NUR/550 June 8, 2012 Cynthia Holsen R.N. – C.W.H.N.P. Barriers and Disparities in Health Care Everyone should have the opportunity to achieve a healthy life and have comprehensive health care services available to them. To achieve this healthy life, people need to have access to the health care system and to a health care provider with whom they can develop a trusting relationship. However, existing barriers to attaining health care services oftenRead MoreHealth Disparities Among Homeless Women And Their Children1015 Words   |  5 Pages Health Disparities Among Homeless Women and Their Children Geraldine Barron Denver School of Nursing Cohort C â€Æ' Health Disparities Among Homeless Women and Their Children Health care disparities is known for its vulnerability among low income and minority status populations. Of most concern are the vulnerable population subgroups known by the harsh environments in which they live, their endangered and unhealthy life styles and the illnesses and injuries that afflict them. â€Å"These subpopulations

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Human Trafficking And Slavery A Violation Of The...

Global Overview Human Trafficking and Slavery universally happens in the world when individuals are placed or maintained in and exploitive situation for economic gain. Women, men and children are trafficked for a range of different purposes; forced and exploitative labour in factories, farms and private households, sexual exploitation, and forced marriage. Trafficking can happen to all people if the circumstances are right. Human trafficking and slavery is in direct violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Article 4 which states â€Å"No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms†. Human trafficking and Slavery in its sole purpose and intention is violating human rights, by forcing people to become slaves because they have no other option. In countries like Uganda and Guinea – Bissau, children as young as five have been trafficked to the LRA (Lord’s Resistance Army) as either soldiers or as sexual slaves, while others have been sent to work in cotton fields in Southern Senegal. Human trafficking and slavery is also a violation against the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 3, which says â€Å"Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.† Human trafficking and Slavery is in violation of numerous international documents which are aimed at preventing it from happeni ng and protecting the rights that are presented to people some of these documents are; Convention againstShow MoreRelatedWomen s Traditional Cultural Values Of Gender Roles1333 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract Human trafficking is a heinous crime and a horribly profitable business which affects hundreds of millions of people every year worldwide. In Nepal, women and girls are more often trafficked than men, either within the country or to brothels in India. They make easy prey because of the poor economic status of many Nepalese citizens and the fact that most women and girls in Nepal do not have education and are completely illiterate. Traffickers are able to abduct them from their lives andRead MoreHuman Trafficking Is An Illegal Movement Of People986 Words   |  4 PagesINTRODUCTION: Human Trafficking is an illegal movement of people for the purpose of forced labour or sexual exploitation. Millions of people from around the globe have been captured and caught to undergo activities against their will mainly for the act of slavery or pleasure and prostitution.Human Trafficking is a criminal industry stripping people of life and freedom. To this day, human trafficking is happening around the globe and numbers of victims are increasing up until this generation. NeverthelessRead MoreHuman Trafficking- The Escalating Global Violation of Human Rights1355 Words   |  6 PagesHuman Trafficking- The Escalating Global Violation of Human Rights Human Trafficking is a serious Global matter that violates a multitude of the Human Rights articles outline in The Universal Declarations of Human Rights. Thousands of individuals are subjects of Human Trafficking every year; the perpetrators of this crime do not discriminate, targeting men, women, the young and the old all over the world. Human Trafficking is indeed a Global issue, occurring in nearly every country on the planetRead MoreThe Violation Of Human Rights1284 Words   |  6 Pages784478 Title: The Violation of Human Rights Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction 3 2. Relevance and value of human rights 3 3. Case studies 4 3.1 Universal Declaration of Human Rights 4 3.2 African Charter 5 3.3 Bill of Human Rights 7 4. Conclusion 7 5. Bibliography 8 1. Introduction Basic human rights are being violated every day all over the world. This includes each human being’s fundamental rights, which are rights that come with beingRead MoreHow Much Would You Sell For?1131 Words   |  5 Pagesand Crime (UNODC), Trafficking in Persons is defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. The most common forms of human exploitation are sexualRead MoreInternational Law Threatens Western Countries1262 Words   |  6 PagesTherefore, in this essay, how do violations of international laws present a direct threat to Western countries will be discussed in the first part, then the understanding of such th reats and justice perpetrators of international crime will be examined in relation to comparative criminology in the second and the third part with illustration of various international data. Firstly, violations of international law generally refer to violation of human rights. Human rights are a complex area in internationalRead MoreFence Of Human Trafficking811 Words   |  4 Pagesoffence of human trafficking encompasses multiple countries and by extension, multiple jurisdictions. To simplify, the issue can be trichotomised to ‘source countries’, ‘transit countries’ and ‘destination countries’. Australia, alongside with the rest of the developed world, is widely considered a destination country. A destination country, as inferred from the title, is one where those trafficked are most commonly sent to. Throughout the world, it is estimated the number of victims of human traffickingRead MoreEssay about Case-Documentary: Child Slavery in the Chocolate Factories730 Words   |  3 PagesThe issue of child slavery within the chocolate industry is a complex issue to solve for corporations within this market sector. Child slavery is heavily embedded into the working culture in cocoa farming, and as a manager, it is important to recognise the problem and do all possible to abolish such activity. As a manager overseeing these issues, it is key to be a leader and enact objectives to inspire other corporations to stand against child slavery in the chocolate industry. Since corporationsRead MoreHuman Trafficking Has Been Existent For Thousands Of Years983 Words   |  4 PagesIn 1863, the United States enacted laws that formally abolished slavery. However, modern day manifestation of slavery still exists; it is called â€Å"human trafficking.† Human trafficking, according to the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 is â€Å"trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person forRead MoreHuman Trafficking And 19th Century American Slavery2818 Words   |  12 Pages Many people believe that slavery was abolished in the 17th century; however, this is only partly correct. Slavery is technically illegal in the United States, but on the black market, humans are still constantly trafficked. Specifically, a lot of men, women and children are trafficked from another country and brought to America to be a slave. This comparison will focus on the similarities of today’s human trafficking and 17th century American Slavery, specifically relating to sexual exploitation